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Mandolin 1/2

The mandolin is a plucked instrument of European origin from the family of lute instruments known since the 17th century. The abbreviation mand. is used for mandolins in scores and instrumentation lists of music groups and orchestras.

There are two basic forms of the mandolin, which clearly differ in the shape of the body:

The classical mandolin, also called Neapolitan mandolin or round mandolin, has a flat, bent top, no ribs and a bowl-shaped body (thus it belongs to the bowl neck lute);

the flat mandolin is made according to construction principles borrowed from cistern or violin making, with ribs and with a flat or slightly arched top and back (making it a box-neck lute).

The majority of mandolins have four string pairs (choirs) tuned in fifths. The most common instrument of the mandolin family is the mandolin in soprano tuning, the strings are tuned in g - d' - a' - e' just like those of a violin. The scale is 32-35 cm for the prime mandolin and 36-38.5 cm for the secondary mandolin with different tuning. The mandola is a tenor mandolin with the tuning G - d - a - e'.

In the playlist below you will find music tracks from our music catalogue for royalty-free Production Music or Stock Music with the keyword "Car racing", which can be licensed directly online via the Proud Music Library as background music for commercials, ads on TV, In-Stream-ads or movie and radio spots. It is also possible to download mp3 files in reduced quality for free to present them internally. Use is only permitted after the purchase of a license. If you have any questions regarding licensing, please contact us by phone at ++49 (0)6132 43 088 30 or by email at

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Classic Neapolitan mandolins can be recognized by their drop-shaped body shape, which is similar to that of an almond. The instrument maker speaks of the "shell" This is traditionally made by gluing wood shavings, similar to the body of a lute, and glued to the top of the instrument. The flat top, usually bent at the widest point, is made almost exclusively of spruce wood.

In folkloristic music, a differently constructed body is usually preferred, similar to that of violins with a domed top (archtop), with separately made ribs and only a slightly domed back or flat like guitars. In the United States since the beginning of the 20th century, various variants of the flat mandolin with cutaway body and f-shaped sound holes have been developed. One of the pioneers in the development of the flat mandolin was the American instrument maker Orville H. Gibson. Gibson was granted a US patent in 1898 for the design he developed according to violin making principles.

Further variants

an early form of the mandolin, often called Milanese mandolin, is played either with the fingers or with a feather. The most common tuning of this 6-string instrument, which was played from about 1660 to 1820, was g - h - e' - a' - d'' - g'' - g''

Portuguese semicircular mandolin

German flat mandolin

Gibson A-4 - drop-shaped flat mandolin with round or elliptically shaped sound hole

Gibson F-5 - flat mandolin, developed by Lloyd Loar for Gibson from about 1919 onwards, with f-holes, cutaway and characteristic scroll on body and headstock, today a valuable collector's item.

E-mandoline with electromagnetic pickup, mostly in single coil design (single coil)

Related Instruments

Among the plucked instruments closely related to the mandolin are the mandola, the bouzouki or cister, the mandolin banjo and the mandriola, the mandoloncello, as well as the tamburica and the saz.

The first sources in which the mandolin is mentioned date from the early 17th century. During the Baroque period, composers such as Antonio Vivaldi and Domenico Scarlatti composed for this instrument.

The mandolin originally came from Italy, but around 1750 Paris became its most important centre. Other important composers who dedicated themselves to the mandolin are Georg Friedrich Händel, Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (for example in an aria in Don Giovanni Deh vieni alla finestra), Ludwig van Beethoven (sonatines for mandolin and harpsichord), Johann Nepomuk Hummel and Niccolò Paganini. Around 1800 the mandolin can be found mainly in Vienna.

The tremolo so well known today, an important playing technique of the mandolin, was already documented in the 18th century, for example in the mandolin school of Michel Corrette in 1772, ch. 10: "Il est a remarquer que sur la mandoline on ne peut pas enfler les sons [...] on fait un Trill qui est une repetition du même son sur une note.". In literature, however, tremolo is required from about 1840 onwards. The most important composer of the Romantic period was Raffaele Calace (1863-1934), who with the help of his brother, the instrument maker Nicola Calace (1859-1923), further developed the instrument. At this time the first plucked string orchestras were founded.


In the course of the 20th century, the mandolin was used with increasing popularity in contemporary music. An important German composer for mandolin and plucked orchestra of the 20th century was Konrad Wölki; he is mainly responsible for the musicological recognition of the mandolin and the plucked orchestra. Today the mandolin can be found in orchestras, in various chamber music ensembles and as a solo instrument. Due to the increasing number of professional mandolin players, the number of composers writing for the mandolin is also growing.


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 This track is perfect for a commercial spot with its friendly, upbeat and positive nature. Piano leads the track with light stabs accompanied by hand claps, ukelele, glockenspiel and mandolin. The track creates a wonderfully friendly atmosphere and is available in full, 1min & 30sec. Popular in ads!

Upbeat Piano Commercial

The perfect sound for any commercial (available in 50sec and 30 sec versions) This track is wonderfully light, happy and above all else; catchy. Simple piano stabs, ukulele and chime bars create an upbeat and light tone with a catchy guitar melody played on top. Perfect for advertising!

The Ukelele Commercial
4 tracks, not registered with a PRO
29 tracks, registered with a PRO
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