GEMA-freie Musik oder „lizenzfreie Musik“ ist nur in wenigen Fällen kostenlos. Auch wenn es jede Menge gemafreie Musikkataloge gibt, die behaupten ihre Musikstücke seien lizenzfrei, so ist eher damit gemeint, dass bei Verwendung der Musik im Sinne einer öffentlichen Aufführung, z.B. bei Verwendung in einem Imagefilm, als Filmmusik, in einer Telefonanlage, oder in einem Youtube-Video, keine Tantiemen an eine Verwertungsgesellschaft zu zahlen sind. Die Erlaubnis die Musikstücke zu nutzen, braucht man allerdings sehr wohl. Die bekommt man von dem Rechteinhaber. Das kann der Autor oder die Autoren selbst sein, beispielsweise bei einer Auftragskomposition. Das kann aber auch ein Verlag sein, der über einen gemafreien Musikkatalog verfügt.
Doch auf was erstreckt sich überhaupt die Erlaubnis?
Unter einem Katalog verstand man früher den (Verlags-)Bestand an Notendrucke von Musikstücken – nicht etwa an Tonträger. Bei einem Production Music Verlag wie der Proud Music Library Publishing, geht es um die Vergabe an Lizenzen an Filmmusik, Werbemusik oder auch mal als Untermalung von Telefonansagen an fertigen Tonaufnahmen.
Warum GEMA-freie Musik nicht kostenlos ist
Die Urheberrechte an gemafreien Kompositionen werden im Hinblick auf das mechanische Vervielfältigungsrecht und das Aufführungsrecht lediglich nicht treuhänderisch durch die Verwertungsgesellschaft GEMA wahrgenommen. Jedoch ist der Erwerb einer Nutzungslizenz nötig, nur eben direkt beim Urheber (Komponisten) bzw. Autor. Je nach beabsichtigter Nutzung (zum Beispiel als Filmmusik für einen Imagefilm) fällt also eine entsprechende Lizenzgebühr an. Gemafreie Musik ist somit nicht kostenlos. Kurz: Nur weil keine Tantiemen beispielsweise für den Einsatz in einem Imagefilm an die GEMA gezahlt werden müssen, handelt es sich bei gemafreier Musik nicht um kostenlose Musik.
Wer im juristischen Sinne kostenlose Musik sucht, sucht Musikaufnahmen mit einer kostenlosen Nutzungslizenz. Sofern mit der Musik eine rein private Verwendung beabsichtigt ist, muß man sich um keine Lizenz kümmern. Privat heißt jedoch: „In den eigenen vier Wänden“, „Im eigenen Auto“. Sobald man einen Film durch Hochladen bei einer Videoplattform (Youtube, Vimeo, dailymotion, etc.) veröffentlicht, liegt keine private Nutzung vor. Hier kann man neuerdings auf Musikstücke zugreifen, die als Creative Commons-lizenzierte Musik gekennzeichnet ist (sogenannte Musik unter einer CC-Lizenz). Jedoch auch bei Traditionals, d.h. Werken die zum öffentlichen Gemeingut zählen, da es sich um Volksweisen handelt (z.B. Irish Traditionals, Deutsche Volkslieder), können Werke vertont werden, ohne das die Autoren beteiligt werden müssen, da diese bereits 70 Jahre tot sind (§ 64 Urheberrechtsgesetz). Man sagt hier auch, dass die sog. Schutzfrist abgelaufen ist. Zu beachten ist hier jedoch, daß solche Werke zwar urheberrechtlich nicht (mehr) durch das Gesetz geschützt sind, allerdings dennoch in Bezug auf die Tonaufnahmen Leistungsschutzrechte der ausübenden Künstler bestehen können. Außerdem ist eine Bearbeitung eines gemeinfreien Werkes oder Traditionals nicht gemafrei, wenn der Bearbeiter einen Wahrnehmungsvertrag mit einer in- oder ausländischen Verwertungsgesellschaft geschlossen hat. Dies bedeutet, dass eine Rechteklärung mit den bei der Aufnahme beteiligten Musikern, dennoch erforderlich ist. Hier kann also ebenfalls nicht davon ausgegangen werden, dass Tonaufnahmen von zum Beispiel Traditionals oder Werken klassischer Musik grundsätzlich kostenlos genutzt werden können, auch wenn die Autoren mehr als 70 Jahre tot sind. Für den kommerziellen Gebrauch ist also Rechtssicherheit aufgrund der Breitenwirkung durch die öffentliche Nutzung, wie etwa bei einer viralen Marketingaktion im Web, für den Musik(be)nutzer ein wichtiges Kriterium, das i.d.R. am Besten von spezialisierten Anbietern beziehungsweise Musikverlagen gewährleistet werden kann.
Ist GEMA-freie Musik rechtssicher?
Da es sich bei einer Einräumung von Nutzungsrechten um eine Lizenzierung handelt, ist der Lizenzerwerb für die Nutzung von Production Music wie auch gema-freier Musik nach § 398 BGB eine Abtretung. Das Verpflichtungsgeschäft ist der Lizenzkaufvertrag nach §§ 433, 453 BGB. Gutgläubiger Erwerb von Rechten ist jedoch ausgeschlossen. Daher hat man als Verlag stets Aufgabe, zu prüfen, mit welchen Autoren und Verlagen man Verträge schliesst. Daher unterhält die Proud Music Library auch eine Rechtsabteilung für die Kunden. Die Rechtsabteilung ist mit einem medienrechterfahrenen Juristen besetzt und kümmert sich um das Vertrags- und Lizenzmanagement.
Für nicht-kommerzielle Nutzung („private“ Nutzung, z.B. Urlaubsvideos, GoPro-Videos) bieten wir rund 100 GEMA-freie Musiktitel auch zum kostenlosen Download und Einsatz an. Mehr erfahren…
Reinhold Pöhnl is one of the most versatile composers I have had a chance to interview. All you need to do is search his name, and you come across an array of compositions that range from classical to jazz to hip hop. Every piece is clear and precise. Following, find out what has contributed to shaping this multi-faceted personality.
PM: When did you discover your love for music?
Reinhold: Maybe it was at the age of 5, when my older sister had her first piano lessons and I was allowed to stand next to the piano.
PM: If you were not a musician, what other path would you have taken?
Reinhold: I am excited about photography, and maybe this would have been my alternative choice. I am also interested in mathematics. There are so many fascinating paths other than music! There is: science, physics, computer graphics, parachuting…., but I think, I never would have become a lawyer or a business manager.
PM: Do you have a favorite composer?
Reinhold: There are, first of all, of course, the three greatest of all times: Bach, Beethoven and Mozart. Nevertheless, there is unimaginably much more music now. If somebody is going to buy a luxury car, it is possible to get some kind of market overview before you do, but when it comes to music, several lifetimes are not enough to browse through the existing music. And every day there is new music. So let me name a few artists or composers I like: Astor Piazolla, the Beatles, Prokofiev, Ravel, Debussy, Count Basie, and Skrillex. It might not make sense because they are so many and so different.
PM: How would you describe your style?
Reinhold: My style is varied. I write and produce very different music. Above all, I like colorful harmonies and surprising changes. I enjoy trance and techno, as well as creating a traditional polka, which then takes a not-so-traditional turn. I like experimenting because I’m inquisitive.
PM: Is there a musician who has influenced your style?
Reinhold: There are countless. As with the question regarding a favorite composer, there are too many.
PM: When did you start composing?
Reinhold: I started soon after I began to play the piano. Of course, that could not actually be considered composing.
PM: Do you write, play, and produce all your pieces?
Reinhold: I write, play and produce, and together with other instrumentalists as well. There is also music which I have written for other performers, such as a string quartet, or music for accordion, or short piano pieces for students. There is a great deal of music I have written that has been performed by others, but which has not been recorded yet.
PM: How many pieces have you written?
Reinhold: More than 500 so far, although I’m certain there will be more. I must admit, some pieces are just for mass production, like musical wall paper, but there are some pieces which I consider little jewels and take a little longer to write.
PM: Do you play an instrument? Which one(s)?
Reinhold: My main instrument is the piano, but I have played the viola for many years, I had to play the unavoidable recorder in elementary school, I still play guitar, and I also have some experience with drums. I have tried the accordion, the upright bass, and the timpani. I have played the traditional organ at church service, as well as a Hammond organ when performing jazz and rock. I have yet to master any of those, except maybe the piano. Still, the experience with so many different instruments, in my opinion, has been quite useful.
PM: What is a normal day like for you?
Reinhold: I am lucky, I think. Most days, when I am not traveling, I can just do what I feel like. Apart from writing, creating and producing my own music, I also work as a freelance musician for Yamaha, producing musical content or training new members. Last week I was sent to a place near Marseille to train a French musician on how to create musical content data. My job is to explain the technical details to make that musical data work best on a particular (digital) instrument. Yamaha wants local specialists to create musical data to perfectly fit the local taste and demand. For these projects I have traveled to Turkey, Spain, Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and the USA, among other countries. The interaction with musicians from different parts of the world and cultures is very exciting, interesting and inspiring to me. I also love to explore the local cuisines and enjoy trying new food, new spices, and experiencing new impressions.
PM: Do you follow a ritual when you write your music? Do you take special measures?
Reinhold: No. Most of the time, I have music paper and a pencil with me; whether I am on the beach or on a train, and certainly, next to the piano. I take notes, write songs, and I have plenty of music notebooks filled with ideas that have not come to fruition yet. I browse through these notes and check and compare once and again. At times, I just sit and play and I start to develop a piece of music based on a kind of improvisation or a spontaneous idea.
PM: What advice would you give someone who is thinking about becoming a composer?
Reinhold: On the one hand, there is the creativity, the genius, the divine inspiration, the unexplainable, which probably cannot be learned or trained. I am not sure why, it is just so. Then, there is also the basics, the craftsmanship, the knowledge about music theory, harmony and all the stuff found in music books. I think it is a good idea to learn what is learnable, and to hope to just have that special something.
PM: What would you say is the hardest thing about what you do?
Reinhold: After having composed, performed, recorded and produced a piece of music, it is hard for me to find a suitable name for it. I am not good at finding catchy titles, so I share the music with my daughters, or I play the music for my wife and I ask for their feedback and suggestions. Most of the time, they have nice recommendations I would never come up with.
Mit Dolomitenpower Wasser scheint es wie mit Schokoriegeln und beflügelnden Energiegetränken zu sein. Die Power kommt sofort zurück. Im Werbespot der Peter Werlberger Film- und Videoproduktion wird ein alter kleiner Traktor von einem großen modernen Schlepper abgedrängt und bleibt am Straßenrand liegen. Der gute Engel in Gestalt einer forschen jungen Frau taucht auf und reicht eine Flasche Dolomitenpower Wasser, die Traktor und Bauer sogleich zu sich nehmen. Man ahnt, was kommen muss in dieser kleinen Dramaturgie: Der Kleine zeigt dem Großen, was Sache ist. Für den Spot haben wir eine tubalastige beschwingte Alpenmusik von Alexander Talmon lizensiert, welche die kleine Geschichte augenzwinkernd untermalt. Einer von mehr als 10.300 GEMAfreien Musiktiteln aus der Proud Music Library.
Die legendäre Nordschleife! Mehr als 1000 Runden hat der zweifache Rallye-Weltmeister Walter Röhrl auf der anspruchsvollen Eifelstrecke gedreht. Jetzt zeigt er, wie er mit seinem 50 Jahre alten Porsche 911 die Grüne Hölle mehr als beherrscht. Für den DVD Trailer „Walter Röhrl auf dem Nürburgring“ haben wir den martialischen Titel „Deep Impact“ von Komponist und Produzent Dag Reinbott lizensiert. Die Filmproduktion Gelee-Deluxe-Films GBR hat sich passenderweise für Epic Music entschieden, denn der brachiale Orchestersound aus der GEMAfreien Proud-Music-Library untermalt dramatisch Walter Röhrls traumwandlerische Bezwingung einer der aufregensten Rennstrecken der Welt.
Recently, we had the pleasure to interview Proud Music’s composer Frank Herrlinger. He spoke with ease and excitement about himself and his work without even once stuttering or doubting, he exhibited a confidence uncommon for a young man his age (Frank is only 30 years old).
PM: Thank you for agreeing to this interview, Frank!
Frank: The pleasure is mine. It is so nice to finally meet you! I have always loved music, and I like to talk about music! I guess that I grew up with music. Both of my parents had musical education, so they naturally introduced me to it and offered me the opportunity to learn to play different instruments. This might sound dumbfounding, but the first instrument I picked up was the accordion….Yes, I know. It does not sound like the instrument a young child would want to learn to play, but I actually did. And I stuck to it for three years. Then, an appeal to pop music diverged my interest to church organ and keyboard. I was attracted to the bombastic sound of the instruments and what you could do with them, and I ended up playing both of those for five years. But as a teenager…these are instruments that a teenager does not consider “stylistically right”, so I turned to electric guitar because at the time, I preferred metal and pop rock. It seemed natural to form a band at that age, and some friends and I did. The band existed for ten years, and I played solo guitarist.
PM: Do you have a favorite composer or a composer that you admire?
Frank: Well, that is actually a difficult question because I do not have just one composer that I like, but many.
Frank: Yes, and they are actually from the film music field. I admire them all for different reasons. One example is Thomas Newman, the composer of American Beauty. He uses many rhythmical and stimulating elements in his music, and he accomplishes it without a loud melody. Now that is admirable! There is also John Powell. He composed the music for How To Train Your Dragon and Ice Age. He is completely different. His melodies are loud and catchy, and you find yourself whistling them. When one of his songs starts, that happens often. It is the kind of music that is written for children because it is repetitive. Another one is Hans Zimmer, who has composed soundtracks for movies such as Pirates of the Caribbean. He has the ability to convey emotions in movies outstandingly well.
PM: And what about musicians?
Frank: Musicians? Not really.
PM: No singer or instrument player…
Frank: No, because I don’t really see myself as a musician, rather as a composer. I have paid more attention to composers. In fact, Frank has enjoyed learning from well-known arrangers in the past, submitting his pieces to them, and asking for their advice. They include David Bloomberg (Jackson 5 and Stevie Wonder), and Glenn Jordan.
PM: When did you start composing?
Frank: I actually started composing while I was still studying, around 2003-2004. I started writing music because I like music, and not because I thought I would be making a living from it. Now, I didn’t follow the classic path, because truth be told, a director and a composer don’t speak the same language. I like composing and I think it is important and good to share what you know. For that matter, I have a blog about music production (http://composerfocus.com/page/6/). Whenever something finally dawns on me, I feel the need to share it with others. It might not offer others an answer, but it might help them find a solution to their particular problem. A person has to be able to modify ideas.
PM: Yes, I know what you mean. There is a great deal of information out there, and yet, there are times when the information we are looking for cannot be found. Luckily, blogs are not only becoming a trend, but also a means of finding that information. Nevertheless, there are cultural differences that keep people from sharing information. Do you think this obstacle could be overcome?
Frank: Of course! As I mentioned, sharing information as a composer does not mean that anybody can plagiarize me. In fact, I work and rework my pieces experimenting also with virtual tones, so I know that my style cannot be imitated. Sharing information is intended to help others find a solution to problems they might encounter when composing themselves.
PM: I have been listening to your work on the Proud Music Library and on YouTube. Your style is often described as “epic”. How would you yourself describe your style?
Frank: Yeah, “epic” is fun, but I would not describe it as “the Frank Herrlinger style”. If I were to play my style, I think that more rock and romantic ballads where you would hear a more emotional devotion with an acoustic guitar would transpire, and not epic music. It is good to have many sides and try different styles, not just one, because music is a craft. Creative phases are always different. It changes constantly, and in this business, it also depends on the client, from the style he requests. Still, it is important to be true to yourself and others. I guess you could say that my style is what I enjoy listening to, what I like right now. And I am certain that it will change in five years, and that is okay.
PM: Do you write, play, and produce all your work?
Frank: I am not always a “one-man show”. I compose my pieces myself, and I often mix and polish them myself, as well, but it also depends on a deadline and how fast I have to produce my work. I sometimes engage the support of other composers who are ready to help. I cannot play every instrument myself, even though I play the guitar and the drums, and program tones on the computer. But live professionals play instruments such as contrabass and ethnic flutes for a fee, of course, and how they play… the sounds that emanate from those instruments! And cooperation is fun! I never work on paid contracts by myself. I always enlist the help of others. The song turns out better when you engage other tone engineers and musicians. And there is never a budget issue. Nobody works for free. May I add something?
Frank: One more thing I do and I actually enjoy doing is marketing myself. You attend school and learn about music, about composing, and what nobody tells you is that you will be unemployed after you are finished with your studies. How do you market yourself? Nobody teaches you how to. In my case, I see myself as somewhat of a businessman. It is a game to me, a game where you need to know the rules, where sometimes you win, and sometimes you lose. But that is not bad, since there is always a new game to play. Part of the game is finding out what is marketable. Even with licensed music, you have to find a market for it. Nobody tells you what to write; you have to have a feel for it. What is mainstream is fun because it is what sells, and what is not or is too innovative will only be known after one’s death. Those who see themselves as mainstream musicians do what they like, and also what sells. I see myself as a mainstream composer; I am not interested in becoming famous after my death.
PM: Some artists like Hopper kept records of their work. Do you know how many pieces you have composed?
Frank: Let me see… (counts quietly in his head). Licensed pieces about 400 and projects…I would say some 600-700 pieces. Wait: Did I just say 600-700?
PM: Yes, you did.
Frank: It is hard to believe that it has been that many! And now that I think about it, I also keep an Excel table –only for licensed pieces- of how successful or unsuccessful one of my pieces has been. I also know if the piece had edits or loops, in which quarter, and for which license it was sold. So I know exactly which styles do not work. (Laughs) I guess that is the business side of me.
PM: What is a normal day like for you?
Frank: This is a funny question because I think people expect to hear that it’s all party and rock’ n’ roll, and that would be rubbish. I actually sit in front of the computer some ten to fourteen hours a day and compose. I also have office work to do for Proud Music’s A&R, but that occupies me for a couple of hours.
PM: It sounds like a lonely job.
Frank: Yes, it is. Happily, I am self-employed, and I actually have the power to change the situation. To sit alone in a room for the next 20 years, I don’t want that for myself. I am a sociable person and I enjoy interacting with others. How can I change that? I have this idea of furnishing a house and turning it into a composers’ house. It would be a 3-4 room house, and I could sit there and work, and rent the other rooms to other composers. Then we could take breaks and visit each other and exchange ideas and benefit from each other.
PM: What a wonderful idea!
Frank: Yes, it is. I consider Hans Zimmer my paragon. He established a company based on this concept, and he works there and rents rooms to other composers. That is my goal, my career dream.
PM: Best of luck bringing it to fruition.
Frank: Thank you.
PM: My next question is if you follow a ritual when you write your music.
Frank: An actual ritual…no, I do not. I have a short deadline for most work and need to produce music in a couple of days. It’s creativity under pressure. My inspiration comes when I go for a walk. People would probably stare if I took a pen and pad, so I take an MP3 player, and I sing melodies into it (I do not sing very well, by the way), and that way, ideas flow faster. If I sit in front of the computer and wait for ideas to come, it doesn’t work that way. If the weather doesn’t allow me to go outside, I find that walking for 10-15 minutes around my 88m² apartment works as well.
PM: What would you say is the hardest thing about what you do?
Frank: The hardest thing: ending a project. I am always looking for ways to improve a song, but you have to be able to say, “Okay. Enough,” and end the song. The good thing is, that there is a deadline so you are forced to make a decision.
PM: If you were not a composer, what other path would you have taken?
Frank: Hmmm. I cannot imagine my life without music because it has always been a part of it, but I think I can narrow it down to a couple of possibilities. Are you ready? Ok. The first one is a martial arts teacher.
Frank: Yes. While I lived in Cologne and Munich, I was practicing Wing Tsjun, a Chinese type of martial arts. Now that I live in Vienna, I couldn’t find a place where they practice the technique, so I am doing Arnis, which is a Philippine type. The second path: a physicist.
PM: You’re not the first person I hear of who relates music to physics.
Frank: Well, I believe that physics and music are connected. Physics can help you determine why something sounds good and something else doesn’t.
PM: Interesting! Now, to end our interview, I was wondering what advice you would give someone who is considering becoming a composer. Frank: I have thought long and hard about this subject, and I have summarized it as follows: First, learn to support the project (the visions) of others. It is never about the music and the composer being in the limelight. What is important is the project manager’s vision. Second, the hired composer writes music, and this music never stands alone, as is the case with a band or a singer. Therefore, you must be nice and cooperative, and be able to work in a team. That’s it.
PM: Frank, thank you very much for your time. It has been a treat getting to know you.
Frank: Thank you!
The interview ended, and Frank returned to his work on that day: finding tones and sounds to add to a database that already comprises some 8000 30-second audio bits, which in due time will be improved and re-worked.
Die Proud Music Library verfügt aktuell über 111 GEMAfreie Tracks von Komponist, Sound-Designer und Produzent Dietmar Hess zur Online-Lizenzierung. Sein musikalisches Spektrum erstreckt sich von orchestraler Filmmusik, Gamesmusik, bis hin zu klassischen Pop-Songs, sowie Chill out, Lounge und Ambient-Musik. Einfach mal reinhören…
Grundsätzlich sind wir immer an der Vermarktung hochqualitativer Musik (GEMAfrei, GEMA-Repertoire) interessiert. Bitte senden Sie uns zunächst eine Infomail mit allen relevanten rechtlichen Infos inkl. kurzen Hörbeispielen. Mehr Infos…
Die GEMA ist die deutsche Verwertungsgesellschaft, der sich Autoren (Komponisten, Textdichter, Bearbeiter) anschließen können. Das Kürzel GEMA steht für „Gesellschaft für musikalische Aufführungs- und mechanische Vervielfältigungsrechte“. In nahezu allen Ländern der Welt gibt es mindestens eine zuständige Verwertungsgesellschaft für die Wahrnehmung von Musikrechte. In der Schweiz ist dies z.B. die SUISA, in Österreich die AKM. Als Körperschaften des öffentlichen Rechts verwalten die nationalen Verwertungsgesellschaften treuhänderisch die Nutzungsrechte der bei ihnen registrierten Autoren und betreibt das Inkasso bei den Nutzern des GEMA-Repertoires. International sind die meisten Verwertungsgesellschaften miteinander vernetzt und haben Gegeseitigkeitsabkommen, so daß die GEMA z.B. auch die Rechte ausländischer Autoren in Deutschland wahrnimmt.